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theories and models
Theories of Intelligence
Intelligence refers to:
“the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.”
"the capacity to reason validly about information."
Two Factor Theory - Charles Spearman
L.L Thurstone's Theory of Intelligence
Howard Gardner —Multiple intelligences
Sternberg– Triarchic theory
Faculty theory is the oldest theory regarding the nature of
This theory states that mind is made up of different faculties
like reasoning, memory, discrimination and imagination etc.
These faculties are independent of each other and can be
developed by vigorous exercise.
Faculty theory has been criticized and proved that mental
faculties are not independent.
Two Factor Theory
Proposed by Charles Spearman (1863-1945).
This theory proposes that intellectual abilities were
comprised of two factors:
general ability or common ability known as ‘G’
group of specific abilities known as ‘S’ factor.
This theory states that a general intelligence factor (g)
underlies other, more specific aspects of intelligence.
Louis L. Turnstone's Theory
He explained intelligence as a person’s “pattern” of mental
abilities or a cluster of abilities.
“Intelligence, considered as a mental trait, is the capacity
to make impulses focal at their early, unfinished stage of
formation. Intelligence is therefore the capacity for
abstraction, which is an inhibitory process "
This theory explains 7 different “primary mental abilities”
which he called primary abilities:
Linguistic (“word smart”)
Logical-mathematical (“number smart”)
Musical (“music smart”)
Spatial (“art smart”)
Bodily-kinesthetic (“body smart)
Intrapersonal (“self smart”)
Interpersonal (“people smart”)
Naturalist (“nature smart”)
Triarchic Theory (Robert
Analytic intelligence—mental processes used in learning how to
Creative intelligence—ability to deal with novel situations by
drawing on existing skills and knowledge
Practical intelligence—ability to adapt to the environment
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate
The ability to manage emotions in one’s self and in others in
order to reach desired outcomes.
An ability to validly reason with emotions and to use
emotions to enhance thought.
An ability to recognize the meanings of emotion and their
relationships, and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of
Artificial intelligence (AI)
"the study and design of intelligent agents"
"the intelligence of machines"
Term first used by John McCarthy, in 1956.
It is the science and engineering of making intelligent
Thurstone, L. L. (1973). The Nature of Intelligence.
Sternberg R.J (1982). Handbook of Human Intelligence. New
York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional
intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence.
Intelligence, 27, 267-298.