Modeling and Role
Erickson, Tomlin & Swain
- Modeling and Role Modeling theory was developed by Helen C.
Erickson, Evelyn M. Tomlin, and Mary Ann P. Swain
- The theory was published in their book Modeling and Role
Modeling: A Theory and Paradigm for Nursing, in 1983.
- This theory is considered as a philosophy of nursing.
- The Theory of Modeling and Role-Modeling enables nurses
to care for and nurture each client with an awareness of and
respect for the individual's uniqueness which exemplifies
theory-based clinical practice that focuses on the clients'
needs. (Sappington, 1996).
The theory draws concepts from
- Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs
- Erikson's theory of psychosocial stages
- Piaget's theory of cognitive development
- General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) by Selye and Lazarus
Commonalities and Differences (Barbara L.
The theory explains about some commonalities and differences
Commonalities among people are:
- Basic Needs
- Attachment and Loss
- Psychosocial Stages
- Cognitive Stages
Differences among people are:
- Inherent Endowment
- Model of the World
- Adaptation Potential
- Self-Care Knowledge
- Self-Care Resources
- Self-Care Action
- Modeling is the process by which the nurse seeks to know and
understand the client’s personal model of his or her world and
learns to appreciate its value and significance.
- Modeling recognizes that each person has a unique perspective
(model) of his or her world.
- The nurse uses this process to develop an image and
understanding of the client’s world from the client’s
- Role modeling is the process by which the nurse facilitates
and nurtures the individual in attaining, maintaining, and
- Role modeling accepts the client unconditionally and allows
planning of unique interventions.
- According to this concept, the client is the expert in his or
her own care and knows best how he or she needs to be helped.
According to the theory the roles of nursing
- Unconditional Acceptance
The theory states five goals of nursing interventions as:
- Build trust
- Promote client’s positive orientation
- Promote client’s control
- Affirm and promote client’s strengths
- Set mutual, health-directed goals
- Modeling refers to the development of an understanding of the
- Role modeling is the nursing intervention, or nurturance, that
requires unconditional acceptance.
- This model considers nursing as a self-care model based on the
client's perception of the world and adaptations to stressors.
- Sappington J, Kelley JH. Modeling and role-modeling
theory: a case study of holistic care. J Holist Nurs. 1996
- Erickson, H.C., Tomlin, E.M., & Swain, M.A. Modeling
and role-modeling: A theory and paradigm for nursing.
Prentice Hall, 1983.
- Irvin BL. MRM Selected Definitions, 1997. Available at
http://www.mrmnursingtheory.org/definitions.htm . Accessed on
- Lombardo SL, Roof M. Clinicians' forum: A Case Study Applying
the Modeling and Role-Modeling Theory to Morbid Obesity. Home
Healthcare Nurse, 2005 - 23:7; 425 - 428.
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