- BPS model is an interdisciplinary model that assumes that
health and wellness are caused by a complex interaction of
biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
- This model was first explained by by psychiatrist George L.
Engel in Science journal in 1977.
- This model is based on the system perspective.
- BPS model rejected biomedical model as dogma.
- General systems theory (von Bertalanffy)
- Social cognitive theory
- Cybernetics (von Neumann)
- Information theory
- Game theory
- “Holistic” biology (Dubos, Mayr)
- This model states mind, body, and environment interact in
- Biological component of the model refers to the fact that
pathogens like germs and toxins precipitate illness.
- Psychological/behavioural component looks for potential
psychological causes for a health problem such lack of
self-control, emotional turmoil, and negative thinking.
- The social part of the BPS model explains how different
social factors such as socioeconomic status, culture, poverty,
technology, and religion can influence health.
- The model presumes that it is important to handle these three
factors together when managing health problems.
- E.g. Social isolation and joblessness ------->
depression/self-incrimination/sedentary lifestyle ------>
- BPS model implies that treatment of cancer/diabetes/mental
disorders should address biological, psychological and social
components of the problem.
- Multi Axial dimension to APA classification of mental
disorders - DSM IV and WHOO ICD-10 classification of mental
disorders are efforts to apply BPS in mental health care.
- Engel GL. The need for a new medical
model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science. 1977;196:129–36.
- Engel GL. The clinical application of the biopsychosocial
model. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:535-544 .
- Psychiatry, Third Edition. Ers. Allan Tasman, Jerald
Kay, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Michael B. First and Mario Maj.John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
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