Jean Piaget (1952-1980) was a Swiss developmental
He developed one of the most comprehensive theories of
He explained genetic epistemology, a
concept which refers to "study of developmental changes in the
process of knowing and in the organization of knowledge."
- a term used by Piaget to describe the models, or mental
structures, that we create to represent ,organize, and
interpret our experiences.
- the process by which children combine existing schemes
into new and more complex intellectual structures.
- an inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the
environment through assimilation and accommodation.
- the process of interpreting new experiences by
incorporating them into existing schemes.
- the process of modifying existing schemes in order to
incorporate or adapt to new experiences.
- Changes occurring throughout the lifespan that are orderly
Cognitive development progress through four stages:
- Sensory-motor stage
- Preoperational stage
- Concrete operational stage
- Formal operational stage
Sensory-motor stage: 0-2 years
- Learning through 5 senses
- Development of imitative behaviors
- Development of symbolic knowledge
- Develops object permanence
- The beginning of goal-directed actions
Preoperational Stage: 2–7 years
- Semiotic function – ability to use symbols
- One-way logic
- Difficulty with the principle of conservation
Concrete Operational Stage: 7–11 years
- “Hands on” thinking
Formal Operational Stage: 11 years to adult
- Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
- Abstract thinking
- “Scientific” reasoning
- Adolescent egocentrism & imaginary audience
- Not all individuals reach this stage
- Piaget made important contributions to our understanding of
normal intellectual development.
- Piagian theories provide a fundamental starting point for
understanding childhood cognitive development.
- Piaget J (1953) The Origins of Intelligence in Children .
Kegan Paul , London, UK .
- Piaget J (1977) The Essential Piaget. Ed by Howard
Gruber,Basic Books New York.
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