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theories and models
Henderson's Need Theory
“Nursing theories mirror different realities, throughout
their development; they reflected the interests of nurses of
“The Nightingale of Modern Nursing”
“Modern-Day Mother of Nursing.”
"The 20th century Florence Nightingale."
Born in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1897.
Diploma in Nursing from the Army School of Nursing at
Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C. in 1921.
Worked at the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service for 2
years after graduation.
In 1923, started teaching nursing at the Norfolk
Protestant Hospital in Virginia
In 1929, entered Teachers College at Columbia University
for Bachelor’s Degree in 1932, Master’s Degree in
Joined Columbia as a member of the faculty, remained until
Since 1953, a research associate at Yale University School
Recipient of numerous recognitions.
Honorary doctoral degrees from the Catholic University of
America, Pace University, University of Rochester,
University of Western Ontario, Yale University
In 1985, honored at the Annual Meeting of the
Nursing and Allied Health Section of the Medical
Died: March 19, 1996.
In 1939, she revised: Harmer’s classic textbook of
nursing for its 4th edition, and later wrote the 5th;
edition, incorporating her personal definition of nursing
She called her definition of nursing her “concept”
She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s
independence so that progress after hospitalization would
not be delayed (Henderson,1991)
"assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to
the performance of activities contributing to health or its
recovery" (Henderson, 1966).
She categorized nursing activities into 14 components,
based on human needs.
She described the nurse's role as substitutive (doing for
the person), supplementary (helping the person),
complementary (working with the person), with the goal of
helping the person become as independent as possible.
Her definition of nursing was:
"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the
individual, sick or well, in the performance of those
activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to
peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the
necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in
such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as
possible" (Henderson, 1966).
Breathe normally. Eat and drink adequately.
Eliminate body wastes.
Move and maintain desirable postures.
Sleep and rest.
Select suitable clothes-dress and undress.
Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting
clothing and modifying environment
Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the
Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring
Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs,
fears, or opinions.
Worship according to one’s faith.
Work in such a way that there is a sense of
Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to
normal development and health and use the available health
The first 9 components are physiological. The
tenth and fourteenth are psychological aspects of communicating
and learning The eleventh component is spiritual and moral The
twelfth and thirteenth components are sociologically oriented to
occupation and recreation
The major assumptions of the theory are:
"Nurses care for patients until patient can care for
themselves once again. Patients desire to return to health,
but this assumption is not explicitly stated.
Nurses are willing to serve and that “nurses will devote
themselves to the patient day and night” A final assumption
is that nurses should be educated at the university level in
both arts and sciences.
theory and the four major concepts
Have basic needs that are component of health.
Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or
a peaceful death.
Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated.
Considers the biological, psychological, sociological, and
The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with
Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for
All external conditions and influences that affect life
Individuals in relation to families
Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the
individual and family.
Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under
which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided
Definition based on individual’s ability to function
independently as outlined in the 14 components.
Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention
and cure of disease.
Good health is a challenge -affected by age, cultural
background, physical, and intellectual capacities, and
emotional balance Is the individual’s ability to meet these
Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the
necessary strength, will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more
of 14 basic needs.
Assists and supports the individual in life activities and
the attainment of independence.
Nurse serves to make patient “complete” “whole", or
The nurse is expected to carry out
physician’s therapeutic plan Individualized care is the
result of the nurse’s creativity in planning for care.
“Nurse should have knowledge to practice individualized
and human care and should be a scientific problem solver.”
In the Nature of Nursing Nurse role is,” to get inside the
patient’s skin and supplement his strength will or knowledge
according to his needs.”
Henderson’s and Nursing Process
of the stages of the nursing process as applied to
Henderson’s definition of nursing and to the 14 components
of basic nursing care.
14 components and definition of nursing
Compare data to knowledge base of health and
individual’s ability to meet own needs with or
without assistance, taking into consideration
strength, will or knowledge.
how the nurse can assist the individual, sick or
the sick or well individual in to performance of
activities in meeting human needs to maintain
health, recover from illness, or to aid in peaceful
based on the physiological principles, age, cultural
background, emotional balance, and physical and
out treatment prescribed by the physician.
14 components and definition of nursing
the acceptable definition of ;nursing and appropriate
laws related to the practice of nursing.
The quality of care is drastically affected by the
preparation and native ability of the nursing
personnel rather that the amount of hours of care.
outcomes of nursing care are based on the speed with
which or degree to which the patient performs
independently the activities of daily living
with Maslow's Hierarchy of Need
Eat and drink adequately
Eliminate by all avenues of elimination Move and
maintain desirable posture Sleep and rest Select
suitable clothing Maintain body temperature Keep
body clean and well groomed and protect the
Avoid environmental dangers and avoid injuring
Belongingness and love needs
Communicate with others
worship according to one's faith
Work at something providing a sense of
Play or participate in various forms of
Learn, discover, or satisfy curiosity
Characteristics of Henderson's Theory
There is interrelation of concepts.
Concepts of fundamental human needs, biophysiology,
culture, and interaction, communication are borrowed from
other discipline.Eg.. Maslow’s theory.
Her definition and components are logical and the 14
components are a guide for the individual and nurse in
reaching the chosen goal.
Relatively simple yet generalizable.
Applicable to the health of individuals of all ages.
can be the bases for hypotheses that can be tested.
assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within
Her ideas of nursing practice are well accepted.
can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve
Lack of conceptual linkage between physiological and other
No concept of the holistic nature of human being.
If the assumption is made that the 14 components
prioritized, the relationship among the components is
Lacks inter-relate of factors and the influence of nursing
Assisting the individual in the dying process she contends
that the nurse helps, but there is little explanation of
what the nurse does.
“Peaceful death” is curious and significant nursing role.
Henderson provides the essence of what she
believes is a definition of nursing.
Her emphasis on basic human needs as the
central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory
development regarding the needs of the person and how
nursing can assist in meeting those needs.
Her definition of nursing and the 14
components of basic nursing care are uncomplicated and
Timber BK. Fundamental skills and concepts in Patient Care,
7th edition, LWW, N
George B. Julia , Nursing Theories- The base for
professional Nursing Practice , 3rd ed. Norwalk, Appleton